complex II inhibition oxidative stress

1: J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 10;281(10):6395-403. Epub 2006 Jan 11. Related Articles, Links
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Phosphorylation marks IPF1/PDX1 protein for degradation by glycogen synthase kinase 3-dependent mechanisms.

Boucher MJ, Selander L, Carlsson L, Edlund H.

Umea Center for Molecular Medicine, University of Umea, SE-901 87 Umea, Sweden.

The transcription factor IPF1/PDX1 plays a crucial role in both pancreas development and maintenance of beta-cell function. Targeted disruption of this transcription factor in beta-cells leads to diabetes, whereas reduced expression levels affect insulin expression and secretion. Therefore, it is essential to determine molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this key transcription factor on mRNA levels and, most importantly, on protein levels. Here we show that a minor portion of IPF1/PDX1 is phosphorylated on serine 61 and/or serine 66 in pancreatic beta-cells. This phosphorylated form of IPF1/PDX1 preferentially accumulates following proteasome inhibition, an effect that is prevented by inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) activity. Oxidative stress, which is associated with the diabetic state, (i) increases IPF1/PDX1 Ser61 and/or Ser66 phosphorylation and (ii) increases the degradation rate and decreases the half-life of IPF-1/PDX-1 protein. In addition, we provide evidence that GSK3 activity participates in oxidative stress-induced effects on beta-cells. Thus, this current study uncovers a new mechanism that might contribute to diminished levels of IPF1/PDX1 protein and beta-cell dysfunction during the progression of diabetes.

PMID: 16407209 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

2: J Pineal Res. 2006 Jan;40(1):71-8. Related Articles, Links
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Melatonin counteracts inducible mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of septic mice.

Escames G, Lopez LC, Tapias V, Utrilla P, Reiter RJ, Hitos AB, Leon J, Rodriguez MI, Acuna-Castroviejo D.

Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) produces nitric oxide (NO) to modulate mitochondrial respiration. Besides a constitutive mtNOS isoform it was recently suggested that mitochondria express an inducible isoform of the enzyme during sepsis. Thus, the mitochondrial respiratory inhibition and energy failure underlying skeletal muscle contractility failure observed in sepsis may reflect the high levels of NO produced by inducible mtNOS. The fact that mtNOS is induced during sepsis suggests its relation to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Thus, we examined the changes in mtNOS activity and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of wild-type (iNOS(+/+)) and iNOS knockout (iNOS(-/-)) mice after sepsis. We also studied the effects of melatonin administration on mitochondrial damage in this experimental paradigm. After sepsis, iNOS(+/+) but no iNOS(-/-) mice showed an increase in mtNOS activity and NO production and a reduction in electron transport chain activity. These changes were accompanied by a pronounced oxidative stress reflected in changes in lipid peroxidation levels, oxidized glutathione/reduced glutathione ratio, and glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities. Melatonin treatment counteracted both the changes in mtNOS activity and rises in oxidative stress; the indole also restored mitochondrial respiratory chain in septic iNOS(+/+) mice. Mitochondria from iNOS(-/-) mice were unaffected by either sepsis or melatonin treatment. The data suggest that inducible mtNOS, which is coded by the same gene as that for iNOS, is responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction during sepsis. The results also suggest the use of melatonin for the protection against mtNOS-mediated mitochondrial failure.

PMID: 16313501 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

3: J Cell Sci. 2005 Feb 15;118(Pt 4):743-58. Epub 2005 Jan 25. Related Articles, Links
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Repeated exposure of human skin fibroblasts to UVB at subcytotoxic level triggers premature senescence through the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway.

Debacq-Chainiaux F, Borlon C, Pascal T, Royer V, Eliaers F, Ninane N, Carrard G, Friguet B, de Longueville F, Boffe S, Remacle J, Toussaint O.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, 5000 Namur, Belgium.

Premature senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) can be induced by exposures to a variety of oxidative stress and DNA damaging agents. In this study we developed a robust model of UVB-induced premature senescence of skin HDFs. After a series of 10 subcytotoxic (non-proapoptotic) exposures to UVB at 250 mJ/cm2, the so-called biomarkers of senescence were markedly expressed: growth arrest, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, senescence-associated gene overexpression, deletion in mitochondrial DNA. A set of 44 stress- and senescence-associated genes were found to be differentially expressed in this model, among which clusterin/apolipoprotein J (apo J) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). Transfection of apo J cDNA provided protection against premature senescence-inducing doses of UVB and other stressful agents. Neutralizing antibodies against TGF-beta1 or its receptor II (TbetaRII) sharply attenuated the senescence-associated features, suggesting a role for TGF-beta1 in UVB-induced premature senescence. Both the latent and active forms of TGF-beta1 were increased with time after the last UVB stress. Proteasome inhibition was ruled out as a potential mechanism of UVB-induced stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). This model represents an alternative in vitro model in photoaging research for screening potential anti-photoaging compounds.

PMID: 15671065 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 4;102(1):244-9. Epub 2004 Dec 20. Related Articles, Links
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Protection from mitochondrial complex II inhibition in vitro and in vivo by Nrf2-mediated transcription.

Calkins MJ, Jakel RJ, Johnson DA, Chan K, Kan YW, Johnson JA.

School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Complex II inhibitors 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) and malonate cause striatal damage reminiscent of Huntington’s disease and have been shown to involve oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Because nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent transcriptional activation by means of the antioxidant response element is known to coordinate the up-regulation of cytoprotective genes involved in combating oxidative stress, we investigated the significance of Nrf2 in complex II-induced toxicity. We found that Nrf2-deficient cells and Nrf2 knockout mice are significantly more vulnerable to malonate and 3NP and demonstrate increased antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated transcription mediated by astrocytes. Furthermore, ARE preactivation by means of intrastriatal transplantation of Nrf2-overexpressing astrocytes before lesioning conferred dramatic protection against complex II inhibition. These observations implicate Nrf2 as an essential inducible factor in the protection against complex II inhibitor-mediated neurotoxicity. These data also introduce Nrf2-mediated ARE transcription as a potential target of preventative therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease.

PMID: 15611470 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

5: J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 4;280(5):3224-32. Epub 2004 Nov 16. Related Articles, Links
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Critical role of mitochondrial glutathione in the survival of hepatocytes during hypoxia.

Lluis JM, Morales A, Blasco C, Colell A, Mari M, Garcia-Ruiz C, Fernandez-Checa JC.

Liver Unit, Instituto de Malalties Digestives, Hospital Clinic i Provincial, Instituto Investigaciones Biomedicas August Pi i Sunyer.

Hypoxia is known to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Because reduced glutathione (GSH) is compartmentalized in cytosol and mitochondria, we examined the specific role of mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) in the survival of hepatocytes during hypoxia (5% O2). 5% O2 stimulated ROS in HepG2 cells and cultured rat hepatocytes. Mitochondrial complex I and II inhibitors prevented this effect, whereas inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or the peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid did not. Depletion of GSH stores in both cytosol and mitochondria enhanced the susceptibility of HepG2 cells or primary rat hepatocytes to 5% O2 exposure. However, this sensitization was abrogated by preventing mitochondrial ROS generation by complex I and II inhibition. Moreover, selective mGSH depletion by (R,S)-3-hydroxy-4-pentenoate that spared cytosol GSH levels sensitized rat hepatocytes to hypoxia because of enhanced ROS generation. GSH restoration by GSH ethyl ester or by blocking mitochondrial electron flow at complex I and II rescued (R,S)-3-hydroxy-4-pentenoate-treated hepatocytes to hypoxia-induced cell death. Thus, mGSH controls the survival of hepatocytes during hypoxia through the regulation of mitochondrial generation of oxidative stress.

PMID: 15548523 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Jun 1;36(11):1434-43. Related Articles, Links
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Cadmium inhibits the electron transfer chain and induces reactive oxygen species.

Wang Y, Fang J, Leonard SS, Rao KM.

Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.

Recent research indicates that cadmium (Cd) induces oxidative damage in cells; however, the mechanism of the oxidative stress induced by this metal is unclear. We investigated the effects of Cd on the individual complexes of the electron transfer chain (ETC) and on the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria. The activity of complexes II (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and III (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) of mitochondrial ETC from liver, brain, and heart showed greater inhibition by Cd than the other complexes. Cd stimulated ROS production in the mitochondria of all three tissues mentioned above. The effect of various electron donors (NADH, succinate, and 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-decyl-1,4-benzoquinol) on ROS production was tested separately in the presence and in the absence of Cd. ESR showed that complex III might be the only site of ROS production induced by Cd. The results of kinetic studies and electron turnover experiments suggest that Cd may bind between semiubiquinone and cytochrome b566 of the Q0 site of cytochrome b of complex III, resulting in accumulation of semiubiquinones at the Q0 site. The semiubiquinones, being unstable, are prone to transfer one electron to molecular oxygen to form superoxide, providing a possible mechanism for Cd-induced generation of ROS in mitochondria.

PMID: 15135180 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Brain Res. 2004 Apr 9;1004(1-2):29-44. Related Articles, Links
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The role of oxidative stress, impaired glycolysis and mitochondrial respiratory redox failure in the cytotoxic effects of 6-hydroxydopamine in vitro.

Mazzio EA, Reams RR, Soliman KF.

College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

The neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) has been implicated in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson’s disease. The current study was designed to elucidate the toxicological effects of 6-OHDA on energy metabolism in neuroblastoma (N-2A) cells. The toxicity of 6-OHDA corresponds to the total collapse of anaerobic/aerobic cell function, unlike other mitochondrial toxins such as MPP+ that target specific loss of aerobic metabolism. The toxicity of 6-OHDA paralleled the loss of mitochondrial oxygen (O2) consumption (MOC), glycolytic activity, ATP, H+ ion gradients, membrane potential and accumulation of the autoxidative product, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Removing H2O2 with nonenzymatic stoichiometric scavengers, such as carboxylic acids, glutathione and catalase yielded partial protection. The rapid removal of H2O2 with pyruvate or catalase restored only anaerobic glycolysis, but did not reverse the loss of MOC, indicating mitochondrial impairment is independent of H2O2. The H2O2 generated by 6-OHDA contributed toward the loss of anaerobic glycolysis through lipid peroxidation and lactic acid dehydrogenase inhibition. The ability of 6-OHDA to maintain oxidized cytochrome c (CYT-C-OX) in its reduced form (CYT-C-RED), appears to play a role in mitohondrial impairment. The reduction of CYT-C by 6-OHDA, was extensive, occurred within minutes, preceded formation of H2O2 and was unaffected by catalase or superoxide dismutase. At similar concentrations, 6-OHDA readily altered the valence state of iron [Fe(III)] to Fe(II), which would also theoretically sustain CYT-C in its reduced form. In isolated mitochondria, 6-OHDA had negligible effects on complex I, inhibited complex II and interfered with complex III by maintaining the substrate, CYT-C in a reduced state. 6-OHDA caused a transient and potent surge in isolated cytochrome oxidase (complex IV) activity, with rapid recovery as a result of 6-OHDA recycling CYT-C-OX to CYT-C-RED. Typical mitochondrial toxins such as MPP+, azide and antimycin appeared to inhibit the catalytic activity of ETC enzymes. In contrast, 6-OHDA alters the redox of the cytochromes, resulting in loss of substrate availability and obstruction of oxidation-reduction events. Complete cytoprotection against 6-OHDA toxicity and restored MOC was achieved by combining catalase with CYT-C (horse heart). In summary, CYT-C reducing properties are unique to catecholamine neurotransmitters, and may play a significant role in selective vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to mitochondrial insults.

PMID: 15033417 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Exp Gerontol. 2003 Aug;38(8):863-76. Related Articles, Links
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Mitochondrial recycling and aging of cardiac myocytes: the role of autophagocytosis.

Terman A, Dalen H, Eaton JW, Neuzil J, Brunk UT.

Division of Pathology II, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.

The mechanisms of mitochondrial alterations in aged post-mitotic cells, including formation of so-called ‘giant’ mitochondria, are poorly understood. To test whether these large mitochondria might appear due to imperfect autophagic mitochondrial turnover, we inhibited autophagocytosis in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes with 3-methyladenine. This resulted in abnormal accumulation of mitochondria within myocytes, loss of contractility, and reduced survival time in culture. Unlike normal aging, which is associated with slow accumulation of predominantly large defective mitochondria, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy caused only moderate accumulation of large (senescent-like) mitochondria but dramatically enhanced the numbers of small mitochondria, probably reflecting their normally more rapid turnover. Furthermore, the 3-methyladenine-induced accumulation of large mitochondria was irreversible, while small mitochondria gradually decreased in number after withdrawal of the drug. We, therefore, tentatively conclude that large mitochondria selectively accumulate in aging post-mitotic cells because they are poorly autophagocytosed. Mitochondrial enlargement may result from impaired fission, a possibility supported by depressed DNA synthesis in large mitochondria. Nevertheless, enlarged mitochondria retained immunoreactivity for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, implying that mitochondrial genes remain active in defective mitochondria. Our findings suggest that imperfect autophagic recycling of these critical organelles may underlie the progressive mitochondrial damage, which characterizes aging post-mitotic cells.

PMID: 12915208 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

9: J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003 Aug;14(8 Suppl 3):S241-5. Related Articles, Links
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Reactive oxygen species-regulated signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy.

Lee HB, Yu MR, Yang Y, Jiang Z, Ha H.

Hyonam Kidney Laboratory, Soon Chun Hyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidney. TGF-beta1 has been identified as the key mediator of ECM accumulation in diabetic kidney. High glucose induces TGF-beta1 in glomerular mesangial and tubular epithelial cells and in diabetic kidney. Antioxidants inhibit high glucose-induced TGF-beta1 and ECM expression in glomerular mesangial and tubular epithelial cells and ameliorate features of diabetic nephropathy, suggesting that oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic renal injury. High glucose induces intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mesangial and tubular epithelial cells. High glucose-induced ROS in mesangial cells can be effectively blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), NADPH oxidase, and mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I, suggesting that PKC, NADPH oxidase, and mitochondrial metabolism all play a role in high glucose-induced ROS generation. Advanced glycation end products, TGF-beta1, and angiotensin II can also induce ROS generation and may amplify high glucose-activated signaling in diabetic kidney. Both high glucose and ROS activate signal transduction cascade (PKC, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription) and transcription factors (nuclear factor-kappaB, activated protein-1, and specificity protein 1) and upregulate TGF-beta1 and ECM genes and proteins. These observations suggest that ROS act as intracellular messengers and integral glucose signaling molecules in diabetic kidney. Future studies elucidating various other target molecules activated by ROS in renal cells cultured under high glucose or in diabetic kidney will allow a better understanding of the final cellular responses to high glucose.

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PMID: 12874439 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

10: J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 26;278(39):37223-30. Epub 2003 Jul 11. Related Articles, Links
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Oxidative damage to mitochondrial complex I due to peroxynitrite: identification of reactive tyrosines by mass spectrometry.

Murray J, Taylor SW, Zhang B, Ghosh SS, Capaldi RA.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA.

There is growing evidence that oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species within mitochondria as unwanted byproducts that can damage OXPHOS enzymes with subsequent enhancement of free radical production. The accumulation of this oxidative damage to mitochondria in brain is thought to lead to neuronal cell death resulting in neurodegeneration. The predominant reactive nitrogen species in mitochondria are nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Here we show that peroxynitrite reacts with mitochondrial membranes from bovine heart to significantly inhibit the activities of complexes I, II, and V (50-80%) but with less effect upon complex IV and no significant inhibition of complex III. Because inhibition of complex I activity has been a reported feature of Parkinson’s disease, we undertook a detailed analysis of peroxynitrite-induced modifications to proteins from an enriched complex I preparation. Immunological and mass spectrometric approaches coupled with two-dimensional PAGE have been used to show that peroxynitrite modification resulting in a 3-nitrotyrosine signature is predominantly associated with the complex I subunits, 49-kDa subunit (NDUFS2), TYKY (NDUFS8), B17.2 (17.2-kDa differentiation associated protein), B15 (NDUFB4), and B14 (NDUFA6). Nitration sites and estimates of modification yields were deduced from MS/MS fragmentograms and extracted ion chromatograms, respectively, for the last three of these subunits as well as for two co-purifying proteins, the beta and the d subunits of the F1F0-ATP synthase. Subunits B15 (NDUFB4) and B14 (NDUFA6) contained the highest degree of nitration. The most reactive site in subunit B14 was Tyr122, while the most reactive region in B15 contained 3 closely spaced tyrosines Tyr46, Tyr50, and Tyr51. In addition, a site of oxidation of tryptophan was detected in subunit B17.2 adding to the number of post-translationally modified tryptophans we have detected in complex I subunits (Taylor, S. W., Fahy, E., Murray, J., Capaldi, R. A., and Ghosh, S. S. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 19587-19590). These sites of oxidation and nitration may be useful biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders.

PMID: 12857734 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

11: J Biol Inorg Chem. 2002 Sep;7(7-8):750-6. Epub 2002 Mar 13. Related Articles, Links
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Effect of neurotoxic metal ions on the proteolytic activities of the 20S proteasome from bovine brain.

Amici M, Forti K, Nobili C, Lupidi G, Angeletti M, Fioretti E, Eleuteri AM.

Post-Graduate School in Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Animal Biology, University of Camerino, MC, Italy.

The effect of oxidative stress induced by neurotoxic metal ions on the properties of the brain 20S proteasome or multicatalytic proteinase complex (MPC) has been studied. Exposure of the 20S proteasome to increasing amounts of Fe(III), Fe(II), Cu(II) or Zn(II) affects its main hydrolytic activities: trypsin-like (T-L), chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L), peptidylglutamyl-peptide hydrolase (PGPH), branched-chain amino acid preferring (BrAAP) and caseinolytic activities, although in different ways. T-L activity showed gradual activation by both iron ions but inhibition by Cu(II) and Zn(II). ChT-L and PGPH activities were inhibited whereas BrAAP activity was widely activated by all the tested metal salts except for zinc ions. Moreover, the exposure to ferrous salt increased the degradation rate of casein. The functional effects appear to be linked to oxidation-induced modifications, as demonstrated by an increase of carbonyl groups following the exposure to metal ions. In addition, modifications induced by ferrous salt on the catalytic subunits were also supported by western blot analyses performed using anti-X, anti-Y and anti-Z antibodies. The results obtained clearly indicate that metal-catalyzed oxidation strongly affects the functions of the brain 20S proteasome, even though the catalytic subunits seem to be differently influenced by oxidative phenomena.

PMID: 12203011 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

12: J Biol Chem. 2002 Jul 19;277(29):26460-7. Epub 2002 May 10. Related Articles, Links
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Inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class II gene transcription by nitric oxide and antioxidants.

Grimm M, Spiecker M, De Caterina R, Shin WS, Liao JK.

Vascular Medicine Unit, Brigham & Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Masachusetts 02115, USA.

Interferon (IFN)-gamma facilitates cellular immune response, in part, by inducing the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules. We demonstrate that IFN-gamma induces the expression of HLA-DRA in vascular endothelial cells via mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. IFN-gamma-induced HLA-DRA expression was inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and N-acetylcysteine. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated that NO and antioxidants inhibited IFN-gamma-induced HLA-DRA gene transcription. Transient transfection studies using a fully functional HLA-DRA promoter construct ([-300]DR alpha.CAT) showed that inhibition of endogenous NO synthase activity by N(omega)-monomethyl-l-arginine or addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) augmented basal and IFN-gamma-stimulated [-300]DR alpha.CAT activity. However, H(2)O(2) and N(omega)-monomethyl-l-arginine could induce HLA-DRA expression suggesting that H(2)O(2) is a necessary but not a sufficient mediator of IFN-gamma-induced HLA-DRA expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Western blotting demonstrated that NO and antioxidants had little or no effect on IFN-gamma-induced IRF-1 activation or MHC-II transactivator (CIITA) expression but did inhibit IFN-gamma-induced activation of STAT1 alpha (p91) and Y box transcription factors, NF-Y(A) and NF-Y(B). These results indicate that NO and antioxidants may attenuate vascular inflammation by antagonizing the effects of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation by IFN-gamma, which is necessary for MHC-II gene transcription.

PMID: 12006557 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002 Apr;34(4):348-57. Related Articles, Links
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Melatonin increases the activity of the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes and the production of ATP in rat brain and liver mitochondria.

Martin M, Macias M, Leon J, Escames G, Khaldy H, Acuna-Castroviejo D.

Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Granada, E-18012 Granada, Spain.

We recently showed that melatonin counteracted mitochondrial oxidative stress and increased the activity of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes both in vivo and in vitro. To further clarify these effects, we studied here the activity of OXPHOS enzymes and the synthesis of ATP in rat liver and brain mitochondria in vitro. In sub-mitochondrial particles, melatonin increases the activity of the complexes I and IV dose-dependently, the effect being significant between 1 and 10nM. Blue native-PAGE followed by histochemical analysis of the OXPHOS enzymes further showed the melatonin-induced increase of complex I activity. Titration studies show that melatonin counteracts the partial inhibition of complex IV induced by 5 microM potassium cyanide. However, melatonin (up to 5mM) was unable to recover the activity of complex IV when it was completely blocked by 100 microM cyanide. These data suggest that the indoleamine could stimulate the activity of the non-inhibited part of the complex IV. Melatonin also increases the production of ATP in control mitochondria and counteracts the cyanide-induced inhibition of ATP synthesis. These results provide new hormonal mechanism regulating mitochondrial homeostasis and may explain, at least in part, the anti-aging and neuroprotective properties of melatonin.

PMID: 11854034 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

14: J Neurochem. 2001 Jun;77(6):1496-507. Related Articles, Links
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Hydrogen peroxide removal and glutathione mixed disulfide formation during metabolic inhibition in mesencephalic cultures.

Ehrhart J, Zeevalk GD.

UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Neurology, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

Compromised mitochondrial energy metabolism and oxidative stress have been associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. Our previous experiments exemplified the importance of GSH in the protection of neurons exposed to malonate, a reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase/complex II. This study further defines the role of oxidative stress during energy inhibition and begins to unravel the mechanisms by which GSH and other antioxidants may contribute to cell survival. Treatment of mesencephalic cultures with 10 microM buthionine sulfoximine for 24 h depleted total GSH by 60%, whereas 3 h exposure to 5 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole irreversibly inactivated catalase activity by 90%. Treatment of GSH-depleted cells with malonate (40 mM) for 6, 12 or 24 h both potentiated and accelerated the time course of malonate toxicity, however, inhibition of catalase had no effect. In contrast, concomitant treatment with buthionine sulfoximine plus 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole in the presence of malonate significantly potentiated toxicity over that observed with malonate plus either inhibitor alone. Consistent with these findings, GSH depletion enhanced malonate-induced reactive oxygen species generation prior to the onset of toxicity. These findings demonstrate that early generation of reactive oxygen species during mitochondrial inhibition contributes to cell damage and that GSH serves as a first line of defense in its removal. Pre-treatment of cultures with 400 microM ascorbate protected completely against malonate toxicity (50 mM, 12 h), whereas treatment with 1 mM Trolox provided partial protection. Protein-GSH mixed disulfide formation during oxidative stress has been suggested to either protect vulnerable protein thiols or conversely to contribute to toxicity. Malonate exposure (50 mM) for 12 h resulted in a modest increase in mixed disulfide formation. However, exposure to the protective combination of ascorbate plus malonate increased membrane bound protein-GSH mixed disulfides three-fold. Mixed disulfide levels returned to baseline by 72 h of recovery indicating the reversible nature of this formation. These results demonstrate an early role for oxidative events during mitochondrial impairment and stress the importance of the glutathione system for removal of reactive oxygen species. Catalase may serve as a secondary defense as the glutathione system becomes limiting. These findings also suggest that protein-GSH mixed disulfide formation under these circumstances may play a protective role.

PMID: 11413233 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Biol Signals Recept. 2001 May-Aug;10(3-4):224-53. Related Articles, Links
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Ubiquinone (coenzyme q10) and mitochondria in oxidative stress of parkinson’s disease.

Ebadi M, Govitrapong P, Sharma S, Muralikrishnan D, Shavali S, Pellett L, Schafer R, Albano C, Eken J.

Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, N.Dak. 58203-2817, USA.

Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease affecting approximately1% of the population older than 50 years. There is a worldwide increase in disease prevalence due to the increasing age of human populations. A definitive neuropathological diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease requires loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and related brain stem nuclei, and the presence of Lewy bodies in remaining nerve cells. The contribution of genetic factors to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease is increasingly being recognized. A point mutation which is sufficient to cause a rare autosomal dominant form of the disorder has been recently identified in the alpha-synuclein gene on chromosome 4 in the much more common sporadic, or ‘idiopathic’ form of Parkinson’s disease, and a defect of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was confirmed at the biochemical level. Disease specificity of this defect has been demonstrated for the parkinsonian substantia nigra. These findings and the observation that the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which causes a Parkinson-like syndrome in humans, acts via inhibition of complex I have triggered research interest in the mitochondrial genetics of Parkinson’s disease. Oxidative phosphorylation consists of five protein-lipid enzyme complexes located in the mitochondrial inner membrane that contain flavins (FMN, FAD), quinoid compounds (coenzyme Q10, CoQ10) and transition metal compounds (iron-sulfur clusters, hemes, protein-bound copper). These enzymes are designated complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6. 5.3), complex II (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC, complex III (ubiquinol:ferrocytochrome c oxidoreductase, EC, complex IV (ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase or cytochrome c oxidase, EC, and complex V (ATP synthase, EC A defect in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, in terms of a reduction in the activity of NADH CoQ reductase (complex I) has been reported in the striatum of patients with Parkinson’s disease. The reduction in the activity of complex I is found in the substantia nigra, but not in other areas of the brain, such as globus pallidus or cerebral cortex. Therefore, the specificity of mitochondrial impairment may play a role in the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. This view is supported by the fact that MPTP generating 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)) destroys dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although the serum levels of CoQ10 is normal in patients with Parkinson’s disease, CoQ10 is able to attenuate the MPTP-induced loss of striatal dopaminergic neurons.

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PMID: 11351130 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Apr;24(4):420-9. Related Articles, Links
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Glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction are induced by chronic stress in rat brain.

Madrigal JL, Olivenza R, Moro MA, Lizasoain I, Lorenzo P, Rodrigo J, Leza JC.

Dpto. de Farmacologia. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense UCM, Madrid, Spain.

Damage to the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of a range of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that chronic stress induced an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production via an expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in brain. Since it has been demonstrated that NO regulates mitochondrial function, we sought to study the susceptibility of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes to chronic restrain stress exposure in brain cortex. In adult male rats, stress (immobilization for six hours during 21 days) inhibits the activities of the first complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (inhibition of 69% in complex I-III and of 67% in complex II-III), without affecting complex IV activity, ATP production and oxygen consumption. The mitochondrial marker citrate synthase is not significantly affected by stress after 21 days, indicating that at this time the mitochondrial structure is still intact. Moreover, the administration of the preferred inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine (400 mg/kg i.p. daily from days 7 to 21 of stress) protects against the inhibition of the activity of complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain as well as prevents NO(x)(-) accumulation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion induced by stress. These results suggest that a sustained overproduction of NO via iNOS is responsible, at least in part, of the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain caused by stress and that this pathway also accounts for the oxidative stress found in this situation.

PMID: 11182537 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Biochem Soc Symp. 1999;66:99-110. Related Articles, Links
Secondary abnormalities of mitochondrial DNA associated with neurodegeneration.

Tabrizi SJ, Schapira AH.

University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, U.K.

The central nervous system has a particularly high energy requirement, thus making it very susceptible to defects in mitochondrial function. A number of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD) and Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA), are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The identification of a mitochondrial complex-I defect in PD provides a link between toxin models of the disease, and clues to the pathogenesis of idiopathic PD. We have undertaken genomic transplantation studies involving the transfer of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from PD patients with a complex-I defect to a novel nuclear background. Histochemical, immunohistochemical and functional analysis of the resulting cybrids all showed a pattern in the PD clones indicative of a mtDNA mutation. There is good evidence for the involvement of defective energy metabolism and excitotoxicity in the aetiology of HD. We, and others, have shown a severe deficiency of complex II/III confined to the striatum that mimics the toxin-induced animal models of HD. There is also a milder defect in complex IV in the caudate. The tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme aconitase is particularly sensitive to inhibition by peroxynitrite and superoxide radicals. We have found this enzyme to be severely decreased in HD caudate, putamen and cortex in a pattern that parallels the severity of neuronal loss seen. We propose a scheme for the role of nitric oxide, free radicals and excitotoxicity in the pathogenesis of HD. FRDA is caused by an expanded GAA repeat in intron 1 of the X25 gene encoding a protein called frataxin. Frataxin is widely expressed and is a mitochondrial protein, although its function is unknown. We have found abnormal magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the skeletal muscle of FRDA patients, which parallels our biochemical findings of reduced complexes I-III in patients’ heart and skeletal muscle. There is also reduced aconitase activity in these areas. Increased iron deposition was seen in patients’ tissues in a pattern consistent with a mitochondrial location. The mitochondrial iron accumulation, defective respiratory chain activity and aconitase dysfunction suggest that frataxin may be involved in mitochondrial iron regulation. There is also evidence that oxidative stress contributes to cellular toxicity.

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PMID: 10989661 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999 Jun;221(2):147-52. Related Articles, Links
Copper deprivation potentiates oxidative stress in HL-60 cell mitochondria.

Johnson WT, Thomas AC.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202-9034, USA.

Cytochrome-c oxidase is the copper-dependent terminal respiratory complex (complex IV) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain whose activity in a variety of tissues is lowered by copper deficiency. Because inhibition of respiratory complexes increases the production of reactive oxygen species by mitochondria, it is possible that copper deficiency increases oxidative stress in mitochondria as a consequence of suppressed cytochrome-c oxidase activity. In this study, the activities of respiratory complex I + III, assayed as NADH:cytochrome-c reductase, complex II + III, assayed as succinate:cytochrome-c reductase, complex IV, assayed as cytochrome-c oxidase, and fumarase were measured in mitochondria from HL-60 cells that were grown for seven passages in serum-free medium that was either unsupplemented or supplemented with 50 n M CuSO4. Fumarase activity was not affected by copper supplementation, but the complex I + III:fumarase and complex IV:fumarase ratios were reduced 30% and 50%, respectively, in mitochondria from cells grown in the absence of supplemental copper. This indicates that copper deprivation suppressed the electron transfer activity of copper-independent complex I + III as well as copper-dependent complex IV. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) content was also increased 49% overall in the cells grown in the absence of supplemental copper. Furthermore, protein carbonyl groups, indicative of oxidative modification, were present in 100-kDa and 90-kDa proteins of mitochondria from copper-deprived cells. These findings indicate that in cells grown under conditions of copper deprivation that suppress cytochrome-c oxidase activity, oxidative stress in mitochondria is increased sufficiently to induce MnSOD, potentiate protein oxidation, and possibly cause the oxidative inactivation of complex I.

PMID: 10352126 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 2;96(3):846-51. Related Articles, Links
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Mitochondrial disease in superoxide dismutase 2 mutant mice.

Melov S, Coskun P, Patel M, Tuinstra R, Cottrell B, Jun AS, Zastawny TH, Dizdaroglu M, Goodman SI, Huang TT, Miziorko H, Epstein CJ, Wallace DC.

Center for Molecular Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Oxidative stress has been implicated in many diseases. The chief source of reactive oxygen species within the cell is the mitochondrion. We have characterized a variety of the biochemical and metabolic effects of inactivation of the mouse gene for the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (CD1-Sod2(tm1Cje)). The Sod2 mutant mice exhibit a tissue-specific inhibition of the respiratory chain enzymes NADH-dehydrogenase (complex I) and succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), inactivation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme aconitase, development of a urine organic aciduria in conjunction with a partial defect in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase, and accumulation of oxidative DNA damage. These results indicate that the increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species can result in biochemical aberrations with features reminiscent of mitochondrial myopathy, Friedreich ataxia, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency.

PMID: 9927656 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Neurochem Res. 1996 Mar;21(3):299-304. Related Articles, Links
Sensitivity of ATPase-ADPase activities from synaptic plasma membranes of rat forebrain to lipid peroxidation in vitro and the protective effect of vitamin E.

Vietta M, Frassetto SS, Battastini AM, Bello-Klein A, Moreira C, Dias RD, Sarkis JJ.

Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

The in vitro effects of membrane lipid peroxidation on ATPase-ADPase activities in synaptic plasma membranes from rat forebrain were investigated. Treatment of synaptic plasma membranes with an oxidant generating system (H(2)0(2)/Fe(2+)/ascorbate) resulted in lipid peroxidation and inhibition of the enzyme activity. Besides, trolox as a water soluble vitamin E analogue totally prevented lipid peroxidation and the inhibition of enzyme activity. These results demonstrate the susceptibility of ATPase-ADPase activities of synaptic plasma membranes to free radicals and suggest that the protective effect against lipid peroxidation by trolox prevents the inhibition of enzyme activity. Thus, inhibition of ATPase-ADPase activities of synaptic plasma membranes in cerebral oxidative stress probably is related to lipid peroxidation in the brain.

PMID: 9139234 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Nov;48(5):928-37. Related Articles, Links
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Inhibition of succinate:ubiquinone reductase and decrease of ubiquinol in nephrotoxic cysteine S-conjugate-induced oxidative cell injury.

van de Water B, Zoeteweij JP, de Bont HJ, Nagelkerke JF.

Division of Toxicology, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, The Netherlands.

The role of complex II in the cellular protection against oxidative stress was investigated in freshly isolated rat renal proximal tubular cells (PTC) with the use of the nephrotoxin S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC). DCVC caused oxidative stress in PTC as determined by flow cytometry with dihydrorhodamine-123; this fluorescent probe is readily oxidized by primary hydroperoxides such as those formed during lipid peroxidation. The oxidative stress could be prevented by inhibition of the beta-lyase-mediated formation and covalent binding to cellular macromolecules of reactive DCVC metabolites, with amino oxyacetic acid (AOA), or by the antioxidant N,N’-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine. Both AOA and DPPD also prevented cell death. The DCVC-induced oxidative stress was associated with a decrease in the succinate:ubiquinone reductase (SQR) activity of complex II, whereas NADH:ubiquinone reductase activity of complex I remained unaffected. AOA prevented the effect on SQR activity, whereas N,N’-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine did not. Inhibition of SQR activity with thenoyl trifluoracetone (TTFA) potentiated the DCVC-induced oxidative cell injury, suggesting the involvement of SQR activity in an antioxidant pathway. To investigate this in greater detail, PTC were treated with an inhibitor of cytochrome-c-oxidase, KCN, in a buffer containing glycine, which prevents cell death by KCN. Glycine did not affect cell death by DCVC. KCN prevented the DCVC-induced oxidative stress and cell death. KCN cytoprotection could be prevented by inhibition of SQR activity with oxaloacetate or TTFA, whereas inhibition of either complex I or III with rotenone and antimycin, respectively, did not prevent it. The effect of DCVC on complex II was associated with a decrease in the cellular amount of reduced ubiquinone (QH2); the KCN-mediated cytoprotection was related to a 60% increase of cellular QH2. Rotenone almost completely inhibited ubiquinone reduction even in the presence of KCN, whereas oxaloacetate in combination with KCN resulted in QH2 levels comparable to control. This suggests that the SQR activity by complex II rather than the cellular content of reduced ubiquinone (QH2) is important as a part of the cellular antioxidant machinery in the cyto-protection against oxidative stress.

PMID: 7476924 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Jan 10;316(1):70-6. Related Articles, Links
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Reactive oxygen species produced by liver mitochondria of rats in sepsis.

Taylor DE, Ghio AJ, Piantadosi CA.

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated in experimental shock states through several different mechanisms. We measured ROS production in metabolically active liver mitochondria from rats rendered septic by cecal ligation and puncture. By polarography, the State 4 and State 3 respiration rates of liver mitochondria isolated from septic animals were no different from control organelles. During oxidation of succinate, however, nonenzymatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid to 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid by mitochondria from septic rats was increased, indicating generation of hydroxyl radical (OH.). Inhibition of electron transport at Complex I with rotenone had no effect on this pattern of OH. production, but rotenone and cyanide abolished the differences in OH. formation between control and septic liver mitochondria. Measurements of H2O2 release suggested that septic mitochondria will increase rates of H2O2 production in the presence of succinate. Additional investigations revealed no difference in the release of iron between septic and control mitochondria. When referenced to respiration rate, both OH. and H2O2 production were greater in septic liver mitochondria. The reproducible effect of sepsis on generation of reactive oxygen species by liver mitochondria utilizing FAD-linked but not NAD-linked substrates suggests that enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress in sepsis is related to alterations in the activity of Complex II of the electron transport chain.

PMID: 7840680 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Lipids. 1982 May;17(5):331-7. Related Articles, Links
Copper(II)-catalyzed lipid peroxidation in liposomes and erythrocyte membranes.

Chan PC, Peller OG, Kesner L.

Cu++ was uniquely capable of catalyzing the peroxidation of rat erythrocyte membrane lipid in the presence of 10 mM H2O2, whereas several other transition metal ions were without significant effect. In contrast, peroxidation of soybean phospholipid liposomes could be catalyzed with decreasing efficiency by Co++, Cu++, Pb++, or Cr+++ also in the presence of H2O2. The effect of imidazole on Cu++- catalyzed lipid peroxidation was stimulatory in liposomes and inhibitory in membrane preparations, whereas EDTA, histidine, citrate and alanine inhibited peroxidation in both systems. EDTA could stop the peroxidation after initiation, but catalase could not, indicating that Cu++ alone was necessary for the propagation of the chain reaction. Competitive inhibition studies with various scavengers of hydroxyl radicals or singlet oxygen and the absence of significant reaction enhancement by D2O indicated that neither of these reactive oxygen species was a major mediator in the Cu++-H2O2 oxidative system. A copper-oxygen complex may be directly involved in the initiation of peroxidation. Normal erythrocyte membranes and phospholipid liposomes also differ in their sensitivities toward external oxidative stress. In the absence of H2O2, CU++ (0.2 mM) was capable of catalyzing lipid peroxidation in liposomes, aged erythrocyte membranes and membranes from vitamin-E-deficient rats; however, freshly prepared membranes from control rats and liposomes containing alpha-tocopherol required H2O2 greater than 2 mM for the catalytic effect of Cu++ to be observed.

PMID: 7098774 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


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