Intra-mitochondrial Poly(ADP-ribosylation) Contributes to NAD+ Depletion and Cell Death Induced by Oxidative Stress*

Intra-mitochondrial Poly(ADP-ribosylation) Contributes to NAD+ Depletion and Cell Death Induced by Oxidative Stress

Poly(ADP-ribosylation), primarily via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), is a pluripotent cellular process important for maintenance of genomic integrity and RNA transcription in cells. However, during conditions of oxidative stress and energy depletion, poly(ADP-ribosylation) paradoxically contributes to mitochondrial failure and cell death. Although it has been presumed that poly(ADP-ribosylation) within the nucleus mediates this pathologic process, PARP-1 and other poly(ADP-ribosyltransferases) are also localized within mitochondria. To this end, the presence of PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribosylation) were verified within mitochondrial fractions from primary cortical neurons and fibroblasts. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosylation) within the mitochondrial compartment preserved transmembrane potential (Delta Psi m), NAD+ content, and cellular respiration, prevented release of apoptosis-inducing factor, and reduced neuronal cell death triggered by oxidative stress. Treatment with liposomal NAD+ also preserved Delta Psi m and cellular respiration during oxidative stress. Furthermore, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribosylation) prevented intranuclear localization of apoptosis-inducing factor and protected neurons from excitotoxic injury; and PARP-1 null fibroblasts were protected from oxidative stress-induced cell death. Collectively these data suggest that poly(ADP-ribosylation) compartmentalized to the mitochondria can be converted from a homeostatic process to a mechanism of cell death when oxidative stress is accompanied by energy depletion. These data implicate intra-mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribosylation) as an important therapeutic target for central nervous system and other diseases associated with oxidative stress and energy failure.

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